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farm to start his own business
(D) A city dweller who raises exotic plants on the
roof of his apartment building
(E) A union organizer who works in a textile mill
under dangerous conditions

20. It can be inferred from examples given in the last
paragraph of the passage that which of the following
was part of "the new and crushing experience of
industrialism" (lines 46-47) for many members of
the English working class in the nineteenth century?
(A) Extortionate food prices
(B) Geographical displacement
(C) Hazardous working conditions
(D) Alienation from fellow workers
(E) Dissolution of family ties
21. It can be inferred that the author of the passage
believes that Mary Barton might have been an
even better novel if Gaskell had
(A) concentrated on the emotions of a single
character
(B) made no attempt to re-create experiences of
which she had no firsthand knowledge
(C) made no attempt to reproduce working-class
dialects
(D) grown up in an industrial city
(E) managed to transcend her position as an outsider

22. Which of the following phrases could best be
substituted for the phrase "this aspect of Mary
Barton" in line 29 without changing the meaning
of the passage as a whole?
(A) the material details in an urban working-class
environment
(B) the influence of Mary Barton on lawrence’s
early work
(C) the place of Mary Barton in the development
of the English novel
(D) the extent of the poverty and physical
suffering among England’s industrial
workers in the 1840’s.
(E) the portrayal of the particular feelings and
responses of working-class characters

23. The author of the passage describes Mary Barton
as each of the following EXCEPT
(A) insightful
(B) meticulous
(C) vivid
(D) poignant
(E) lyrical

As of the late 1980’s. neither theorists nor large-
scale computer climate models could accurately predict
whether cloud systems would help or hurt a warming
globe. Some studies suggested that a four percent
(5)increase in stratocumulus clouds over the ocean could
compensate for a doubling in atmospheric carbon diox-
ide, preventing a potentially disastrous planetwide temp-
erature increase. On the other hand, an increase in cirrus
clouds could increase global warming.
(10) That clouds represented the weakest element in cli-
mate models was illustrated by a study of fourteen such
models. Comparing climate forecasts for a world with
double the current amount of carbon dioxide, researchers
found that the models agreed quite well if clouds were
(15)not included. But when clouds were incorporated, a wide
range of forecasts was produced. With such discrepancies
plaguing the models, scientists could not easily predict
how quickly the world’s climate would change, nor could
they tell which regions would face dustier droughts or
deadlier monsoons.

24.The author of the passage is primarily concerned
with
(A) confirming a theory
(B) supporting a statement
(C) presenting new information
(D) predicting future discoveries
(E) reconciling discrepant findings

25. It can be inferred that one reason the fourteen models
described in the passage failed to agree was that
(A) they failed to incorporate the most up-to-date
information about the effect of clouds on
climate
(B) they were based on faulty information about
factors other than clouds that affect climate.
(C) they were based on different assumptions about
the overall effects of clouds on climate
(D) their originators disagreed about the kinds of
forecasts the models should provide
(E) their originators disagreed about the factors


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