Born: 21 July 1693 in London
First entered Parliament: Took seat in House of Lords on 1 August 1714
Age he became PM: 60 years, 238 days and 63 years and 344 days
Maiden speech: His first recorded speech in the House of Commons was on 14 April 1716 in favour of the Septennial Bill
Total time as PM: Seven years and 205 days
Died: 17 November 1768 in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London
Facts and figures
Nickname: "Hubble-Bubble" in reference to his fussing and his habit of hurrying everywhere
Education: Westminster School and Clare Hall, Cambridge
Family: Thomas Pelham had two brothers and was the eighth of 11 children. He married Lady Henrietta Godolphin. They had no children
Interests: Music, writing poetry, gardening, food and drink
Conflict with France
Thomas Pelham, Duke of Newcastle, is best known for leading Britain into the Seven Years War, a long military conflict with France which drained the nation and led to his own downfall.
Newcastle came from a wealthy aristocratic family with strong political leanings - his brother, Henry Pelham, was also in politics and served as prime minister after Wilmington. He was tall for the time, had a high forehead, dark grey eyes and hooked nose. It is said he was hyperchondriac, worrying constantly about his health.
However, he was part of Walpole's inner group from 1722, and his power grew as Walpole's declined. He championed Britain's entry into the war of the Austrian succession in 1741, despite Walpole's opposition.
When Pelham died in 1754, Newcastle succeeded his brother as Prime Minister. Newcastle immediately invoked the wrath of Pitt the Elder by failing to promote him above the subordinate position he had occupied for a decade, and later sacked him altogether.
Poorly fought war
Newcastle's first term was dominated by foreign affairs, including the Seven Years War. It was poorly fought, and early defeats led to his resignation in 1756.
Returning to office the following year, Newcastle formed a successful power-sharing coalition with Pitt.
But his influence declined from 1760 with the accession of George III, who wanted him removed. Newcastle's final year as prime minister saw parliamentary battles over the financing of the war in Europe, leading to his resignation in 1762.
In his later years Newcastle served as Lord Privy Seal in Rockingham's ministry, but it was a short-lived appointment. He died in November 1768.
The duke was said not to be a great man, but he was industrious and energetic, and to his credit he twice refused a pension. Records show that he finally left office £300,000 poorer than he entered it.
"I shall not... think the demands of the people a rule of conduct, nor shall I ever fear to incur their resentment in the prosecution of their interest. I shall never flatter their passions to obtain their favour, or gratify their revenge for fear of their contempt."
Did you know?
Newcastle spent his entire parliamentary career in the House of Lords, having taken his seat at the age of 21.
Lady Henrietta Godolphin was the daughter of Henrietta Churchill, the Duchess of Marolborough. She was just 16 when she married the Duke and shortly afterwards had a miscarriage. She never managed to conceive again. It is said that he enjoyed painting, sewing and music.
Lady Henrietta was a gambler, although she kept meticulous records and her losses were said to be small. She took little interest in public life but the Duke was loyal to her, despite the lack of children.
Born: 1720First entered Parliament: 19 May 1741Age he became PM: 36 yearsMaiden speech: On 16 November 1742 he moved the Address on the King's SpeechTotal time as PM: 225 daysDied: 2 October 1764 at ...（查看全文）
Only 11 months in office, Bute nevertheless ended both the predominance of the Whigs and the Seven Years War.Unpopular with the EnglishDespite bringing peace, Bute proved deeply unpopular in England f...（查看全文）
Born: 14 October 1712 in Westminster, LondonFirst entered Parliament: 4 May 1741Age he became PM: 50 years, 184 daysMaiden speech: 21 January 1742 in the debate criticising Walpole's conduct of the w...（查看全文）
Born: 13 May 1730First entered Parliament: 21 May 1751 (took seat in House of Lords)Age he became PM: 35 years, 61 days and 51 years, 318 daysMaiden speech: His first recorded speech in the House of C...（查看全文）
The Earl of Chatham, William Pitt 'The Elder' 1766-8 WhigBorn: 15 November 1708 in Westminster, LondonFirst entered Parliament: 18 February 1735Age he became PM: 57 years, 257 daysMaiden speech: 22 ...（查看全文）