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求学网 >> English >> 考生经验

2012年商务英语(BEC)段落写作练习及讲解


商务英语复习指导:

段落的特点

一般来说,段落主要由三部分组成,即主题句、扩展句和结尾句。

主题句是篇章的核心,它表明作者的态度、观点、意图等,同时反映了段落的中心思想。主题句应具备:一是明确的观点,二是有一定的概括性,能用其它句子来解释、描述、分析等。扩展句主要围绕着主题句进行叙述,说明或论述等。扩展句必须明确、具体。总结句指用一句话将某一主旨进行归纳总结或概括,有时还起承上启下的作用。总结句需要与主题呼应,引发读者对段落主题的进一步认识。总之,篇章的主题必须统一,内容完整、结构连贯,长度适度。

段落的发展

段落的扩展对构成一篇文章,展示文章的主题,有着举足轻重的作用。常用的方式有:

1.排列顺序:既按照内容的主次、时间的先后或位置的先后来进行论证,陈述或解释。

常用的词语有:first/firstly, second/secondly,furthermore,finally,above all, first and most

important, to begin/start with, in the second place, moreover, to conclude, next,then, afterward lastly, in the end, eventually.

2.比较和对比:一般来说,比较包括相同点和相异点。对比则仅指相异点。常见的词及词组有:in comparison(with),likewise,similarly,in the same way,equally,but, in contrast With/to,instead,conversely,on the contrary, in/by contrast,while,Correspondingly.

3.因果和推理:这种段落发展方式通常用于解释某件事发生的原因和结果。经常用到的因果关系的动词和动词词组有:cause,produce, lead to, bring about, result from, be due to,have an effect on, result in.

因果关系的连接词有:due to,the fact that, for the simple reason,because (of),so that, consequently,hence,as a result,accordingly,therefore,so long as,so,thus,owing to,now that, for/as,since.

4.举例:用实例来说明作者的观点是举例段落的发展方式。采用举例的方式,使文章内容更加充实,更富有内涵。常用于举例的词和词组有:such as,for example,for instance,as an illustration,to illustrate,a case in point,as follows,just as,just as,including,like.

短文

短文的基本格式为:开始段,主体段和结论段。开始段是短文的中心,即主题。文章的开头段必须把握两个原则:表明文章的主题使文章的发展有所遵循;引发读者的兴趣、使他确信值得读下去。主体段,即文章的发展,是文章的中心的发展,它以文章的开头为线索,准确,具体而充实地论证、说明或分析文章的主题。主体段须遵循1)文章的发展必须通畅、自然。2)文章的发展必须联贯统一。3)文章的发展必须长短适度。结论段:同文章的开头和发展一样,文章的结尾也是写作成败的关键。它起着总结,概括全篇的作用,使主题更加鲜明,结构更加完美。

Section I 补充主题句

1)__________________, generally, the standard of education is higher. This is because colleges and universities have up-to-date equipment and other resources. Also, teachers and lectures are highly-skilled professionals who are aware of all the latest developments in their fields of interest. A final point is that the overseas qualifications which a student obtains are valid usually anywhere in the world.

2)__________________. These include defense capabilities and social security. Private enterprise and the profit motive should not form part of these essential services. On the other hand, some services could be provided by either governments or private groups or both. Education and health care are examples of such services. A government must provide at least a basic level of education and health care so all citizens call have access to them.

3)__________________. Every day there are opportunities to practice listening to and speaking with Australians. Also, students can experience the culture first-hand, which is a great help when trying to understand the language. This is especially true if they choose to live with Australians, as part of a home-stay family, for example. Furthermore, if students attend a language school full-time, the teachers will be native speakers.

4)__________________. Jose did not complete his mathematics yesterday. He spent the first fifteen minutes of the hour working on the first of the ten examination problems. He spent other minutes doodling on his test paper.

5)__________________. One example is the word “graft.” The verb to graft first meant merely to work. English people once used the word in such expressions as “ Where are you grafting?”, meaning “ Where are you working?”。 From this perfectly respectable meaning, the word has gradually changed. Today graft refers to illegal gains won by dishonest politicians.

Section II 重组下面的段落

6. Certainly TV can be a powerful educational tool. People can learn about situations and problems far away, and begin to understand different cultures. Many informative documentaries about nature, news, and social issues are made now, and these can stimulate people to action. People in isolated areas can know for themselves what is happening in the world. This gives them the power to make their own decisions and form their own opinions.

7. In my opinion, television is the most important technological development. Nowadays almost everyone in the world has access to TV. Television has caused significant changes in family life and education. Some of these changes have been positive while others have been negative.

8. However, the changes have not all been positive. Before television was widely available, families spent more time together talking and playing games. They seemed much closer to each other than modem families.

9. To sum up, I feel that, overall, there are strong positive effects of TV in terms of its education role, but it has in may ways altered people and families in a negative sense.

10. Also, the fact is that people waste a lot of time watching poor quality programs which do not have a positive influence. People get a bad impression of the real world from such programs. Furthermore, TV is sometimes used to deliberately misinform people; for example when it is used to as a propaganda tool by governments.

Section IV 用启、承、转,合词填空

Text 1

Teachers of foreign languages should be extremely well-qualified in order to carry out their duties properly. 15)______, a teacher should possess a minimum of a graduate degree from a certified education school or institute if he is to teach high school or below. Besides the academic degree, teachers should not consider teaching only as an occupation for earning money; they should also be interested in teaching. It was 16)______ necessary that teachers be knowledgeable in their major fields, 17)______ they should further more be skillful as well. 18)______ the language teacher must know the target language well enough to be imitated by his students. A teacher should 19)______ know the linguistic facts of the language of the students in order to understand problems they will have in learning the target language, 20)______ the teacher must be familiar with audio-lingual techniques. Knowing all this will help the students to learn correctly and quickly.

Text 2

21)______ studying too much may be harmful to students. 22)______, many teachers expect their students to do more work than they can handle. 23)______, parents do not realize that pressuring their children to study hard than called for can injure their children‘s health. 24)______ most parents know what growing boys and girls need relaxation as well as exercise, 25)______ many students have no choice but to burn the candle at the both ends in order to get good grades and please their parents, but a physically weaker or socially deprived child may not be able to keep up with such a hurried pace. Accordingly, this pressure to study in excess of what is required.

1) University Students Like Reading Newspapers in English

Dear Editor:

I am a student at Renmin University of China in Beijing. As a regular who goes to the university library‘s newspaper room, I have discovered that many students like reading newspaper in English, especially China Daily.

The reason that China Daily is popular among students is not difficult to explain. A major characteristic of China Daily is the conciseness of its articles. Most of the articles are brief, clearly written and informative. Many students are busy with their studies and don‘t have much spare time. However, by reading China Daily, readers can get up-to-date news about China and the world and enhance their reading capabilities at the same time and, more importantly, it doesn’t cost them a lot of time. In this sense, China Daily is providing a sort of “fast-food” to its readers. Furthermore, China Daily also helps its readers improve their writing skills. For those students who find English compositions difficult, articles on China Daily serve as perfect examples.

Many fellow students told me that they had learned a lot from China Daily about China and the world. As a result they also improved their reading and writing and got high marks in English exams.

Yours Sincerely,

Lin Weiying

2) China‘s Most Famous Symbol in Need Of Help

Years ago, walking the Great Wall in the Beijing region was like no other experience in China. It was peaceful; there were no coke cans or mineral water bottles to spoil the view——it was quite simply the world‘ s most spectacular open air museum.

How things have changed! There are now cans and bottles, and sometimes much worse. While I used to spend most of recreational time climbing the Great Wall, I have found myself spending an increasing amount of time cleaning up the wall. In the last 18 mo


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