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    We can see how the product life cycle works by looking at the introduction of instant coffee. When it was introduced, most people did not like it as well as “regular” coffee and it took several years to gain general acceptance (introduction stage). At one point, though, Instant coffee grew rapidly in popularity and many brands were introduced (stage of rapid growth). After a while people became attached to one brand and sales leveled off (stage of maturity). Sales went into a slight decline(衰退)when freeze-dried coffees were introduced (stage of decline).
    第一段中有三个句型可以在图表作文中应用:
    1. instant coffee grew rapidly in popularity.
    我们可以这样模仿:the mobile phone has grown rapidly in popularity.
    2. sales leveled off.
    或者也可以这样说:sales remained constant / steady / stable / much the same
    3. sales went into a slight decline.
    或者也可以这样说: sales declined slightly / 如果下降幅度大可以说sales declined dramatically / substantially / sharply / greatly / hugely.
    第四步:总结文章主要讨论对象、关键词,作者、专家的观点以及语篇及段落发展模式。对考试类文章而言,还要总结文章的考点、题目的定位、答案的替换、正确和干扰项的规律、特征。 例1:请大家参考我对2005年1月六级阅读第三篇的解析:
    Passage Three
    (31) Throughout the nation’s more than 15,000 school districts, widely differing approaches to teaching science and math have emerged. Though there can be strength in diversity, a new international analysis suggests that this variability has instead contributed to lackluster (平淡的) achievement scores by U.S. children relative to their peers in other developed countries.(注意本段的differing / diversity / variability几个同义替换,表明本段强调了美国各个地区的科学数学教育差异很大〈多样性,多元化〉的事实。文章第二句,作者话锋一转,尽管多元化有好处,但有分析表明这导致了美国的孩子与其它发达国家的同龄人相比,学习成绩比较平淡。这一句提出了美国教育存在的问题,预测后文可能会作详细阐述或提出解决问题的办法,注意这都是可能的考点。平时复习时一定要培养自己归纳、预测原文的能力!)
    31. According to the passage, the teaching of science and math in America is _______.
    [定位与替换] 本题问美国的科学数学教学的状况。根据关键词teaching of science and math定位到原文第一段。选B) characterized by its diversity以多样性为特点。解题的重点在准确判断第一段所强调的内容。
    [干扰项分析] A) focused on tapping students’ potential集中开发学生的潜力,文中无信息支持;C) losing its vitality gradually逐步失去活力,D) going downhill in recent years最近几年走下坡路,文章虽指出了美国的教育体系有缺陷,但并未说其失去活力或走下坡路,故不应选C、D。
    Indeed, concludes William H. Schmidt of Michigan State University, who led the new analysis, "no single intellectually coherent vision dominates U.S. educational practice in math or science.’’ The reason, he said, "is because the system is deeply and fundamentally flawed." (Indeed, 在这里是加强语气,“确实”的意思,经常在文章中引出作者或者专家的重要观点。专家Schmidt的结论:美国数学科学教育实践缺乏连贯一致的知识观念,原因是这个体系有深刻和根本的缺陷。到底是什么缺陷呢?这里专家只是作了抽象的概括,下文中可能会详细阐述。注意coherent和第一段diversity是反义词。)
    The new analysis, released this week by the National Science Foundation in Arlington, Va., is based on data collected from about 50 nations as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study.(本段不是很重要,主要讲这个分析是基于50个国家的数据。)
    Not only do approaches to teaching science and math vary among individual U.S. communities, the report finds (= the new analysis), but there appears to be little strategic focus within a school district’s curricula, its textbooks, or its teachers’ activities.(Not only … , but …倒装强调句,语意重心在but后面的内容:美国的各个学区在课程等方面缺乏战略重点。the report finds是插入语)(32) This contrasts sharply with the coordinated national programs of most other countries.(这与大部分其它国家的协调的国家计划形成鲜明对比,是作者的结论句。This指代上面一句的意思,也即美国人的做法。这里也是一个重要的对比考点。)
    32. The fundamental flaw of American school education is that ________.
    [定位与替换]本题是问美国学校教育的根本缺陷是什么。根据关键词fundamental flaw可定位到原文第二段,但答案并不在其中(而是在第四段)。根据对文章的分析,应该选A) it lacks a coordinated national program美国学校教育缺乏一个协调一致的全国性计划。答案是从第四段This contrasts sharply with the coordinated national programs of most other countries. 推得的。本题解题的关键是跨段整合内容。
    [干扰项分析] B) it sets a very low academic standard for students它对学生设定了非常低的学术标准,文中无内容支持(只是说美国学生学的多而不精);C) it relies heavily on the initiative of individual teachers它非常依赖各个教师的主动性,文中无信息支持;D) it attaches too much importance to intensive study of school subjects 它太重视学校课程的深入学习,与文章内容相反,如果选项是attach too much importance to extensive, but not intensive, study of school subjects 才符合原文。
    (33) On average, U.S. students study more topics within science and math than their international counterparts do. This creates an educational environment that "is a mile wide and an inch deep," Schmidt notes. (出现比较级时应高度关注。第二句This指代第一句陈述的事实:平均说来,与国际同龄人相比,美国学生在科学数学方面要学习更多的科目。A mile wide and an inch deep属于形象用法、比喻考点。)
    For instance, eighth graders in the United States cover about 33 topics in math versus just 19 in Japan. Among science courses, the international gap is even wider.(作者接着举例说明美国的教育环境是a mile wide and an inch deep。)U.S. curricula for this age level resemble those of a small group of countries including Australia, Thailand, Iceland, and Bulgaria. Schmidt asks whether the United States wants to be classed with these nations, whose educational systems "share our pattern of splintered (支离破碎的) visions" but which are not economic leaders.
    33. By saying that the U.S. educational environment is "a mile wide and an inch deep" (Line 2, Para. 5), the author means U.S. educational practice ________.
    [定位与替换] 本题问作者对美国教育实践的看法。根据上面两段This指代的事实以及For instance后对a mile wide and an inch deep的进一步解释可以看出,美国教育注重所开科目的广度而不重视深度,所以选D) scratches the surface of a wide range of topics只触及了许多科目的表面。另外,education environment = educational practice。解题的关键是要跨段整合内容,并准确地识别指代和例证的含义。
    [干扰项分析] A) lays stress on quality at the expense of quantity牺牲数量来强调质量,和文中内容相反;B) offers an environment for comprehensive education为全面综合教育提供了环境,文中只提到科学数学教育,并未出现全面综合教育的概念;C) encourages learning both in depth and in scope鼓励既深入又广泛地学习,这只是美国教育改革的方向,与原文内容不一致。
    The new report "couldn’t come at a better time," says Gerald Wheeler, executive director of the National Science Teachers Association in Arlington.(本句是某个专家对the new report所作的评价。文章中出现概括性评价之后一般都会作进一步的解释说明、原因分析等,这是命题者较喜欢的考点。)(34)"The new National Science Education Standards provide that focused vision," including the call "to do less, but in greater depth." (The new National Education Standards和The new report属于同义概念。)
    34. The new National Science Education Standards are good news in that they will ________.
    [定位与替换]本题问新的全国科学教育标准是个好消息的原因。根据关键词The new National Education Standards和good news, 定位到第七段,本题所问的原因在第二句,注意but引起的强调,故选A) provide depth to school science education使学校的科学教育具有深度。解题的关键在于识别句子之间的关系。
    [干扰项分析] B) solve most of the problems in school teaching解决学校教学的大部分问题,歪曲并夸张了文章原意;C) be able to meet the demands of the community能够满足社区需求,文中未提及,因为新的全国科学标准是为了弥补教育体制的缺陷而制定的;D) quickly dominate U.S. educational practice迅速在美国的教育实践中处于支配地位,文中也未提及,而是指出了实现这个新标准将面临挑战。 (35) Implementing the new science standards and their math counterparts will be the challenge, he and Schmidt agree, because the decentralized responsibility for education in the United States requires that any reforms be tailored and instituted one community at a time.(…因为美国的教育责任是分散的,它要求任何一项改革只能一次一个社区地量身定制。he and Schmidt agree是插入语,而且是专家观点标志词,紧接着阐述了Implementing the new standards… will be the challenge的原因,考点设置和34题如出一辙,但相对简单,因为because是明显的因果关系考点标志词。)
    In fact, Schmidt argues, reforms such as these proposed national standards "face an almost impossible task, because even though they are intellectually coherent, each becomes only one more voice in the babble (嘈杂声)."
    35. Putting the new science and math standards into practice will prove difficult because ________.
    [定位与替换] 本题问实施新的科学数学标准将会遇到困难的原因。put sth. into practice = implement, will prove difficult = will be the challenge, 所以本题可准确定位到倒数第二段,最后选C) school districts are responsible for making their own decisions学区对自己的决定负责。该选项表达了文中“责任分散”的意思。
    [干扰项分析] A) there is always controversy in educational circles在教育界一直存在争论,B) not enough educators have realized the necessity for doing so没有足够的教育者意识到这样做的重要性,D) many schoolteachers challenge the acceptability of these standards许多学校老师质疑这些标准的可接受性,这三个选项文中均无信息支持。
    例2、2000年1月四级阅读第二篇
    Some studies suggest that straight, horizontal bars painted across roads can initially cut the average speed of drivers in half. However, traffic often returns to full speed within months as drivers become used to seeing the painted bars.
    30. What does the author say about straight, horizontal bars painted across roads?
    A) They cannot be applied successfully to traffic circles.
    B) They tend to be ignored by drivers in a short period of time.
    C) They are falling out of use in the United States.
    D) They are applicable only on broad roads
    请用心体会initially 这个词的内涵,其实,你一看到这个词,就应该准确predict后面可能会有考点,而且肯定会出现but, however, ultimately 一类的转折、对比词。答案B)。

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